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Real Estate Financial Modeling Accelerator (Updated September 2019)

Since starting A.CRE, Michael and I have fielded email after email requesting a more structured real estate financial modeling training program on the site. Important Note: We're updating and adding to the Accelerator every week. Since launch,…
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30/360, Actual/365, and Actual/360 - How Lenders Calculate Interest on CRE Loans – Some Important Insights

(Updated August 7, 2019 to include a Watch Me Build video and Downloadable file)Commercial real estate lenders commonly calculate loans in three ways: 30/360, Actual/365 (aka 365/365), and Actual/360 (aka 365/360). Real estate professionals…
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The Limitations of IRR When Evaluating Real Estate Investments

The internal rate of return is one of the most commonly used return metrics to value real estate investment opportunities. Simply put, the IRR is the anticipated project determined discount rate an investor is expected to earn over the life…
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Modeling a Property Tax Abatement in Real Estate

We often field questions around how to model property tax abatements. This is a concept we've addressed in our All-in-One forum and a question around valuing property tax abatements came up recently in our A.CRE Accelerator Advanced Concepts…
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Deep Dive: Understanding Acquisitions: The Letter of Intent (LOI)

The Letter of Intent - Legal Issues The letter of intent is a critical document that is written up at the beginning of a potential real estate transaction between either a prospective buyer and seller or a prospective tenant and landlord.…
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Understanding Treatment of Time 0 in the All-in-One Model

I received a very astute question/concern from a user of our All-in-One(Ai1) model in our Ai1 Support Forum late last month. I initially set out to answer the question in writing, but the more I thought about my response, the more I concluded…
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All About Cap Ex

In this post, we are going to take a deeper look into capital expenditures. What it is and how we account for it in cre underwriting.Capital expenditures, commonly referred to as Cap Ex, are expenses that occur outside of normal operating…
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Using the Cash-on-Cash Return in Real Estate Investment Analysis

I’ve fielded a handful of Cash-on-Cash (CoC) return questions of late. So, I thought it would be worthwhile to write a post on what the Cash-on-Cash return metric tells me about a potential real estate investment. This article is a primer,…
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The A.CRE Method For Doing Cap Rate Mental Math - Practice Tool

At the bottom of this post is a downloadable practice tool for the A.CRE Method for doing cap rate mental math. The tool will generate an endless number of random cap rates and NOIs to practice with and will walk you step by step through how…
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A.CRE 101: How To Use The Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method To Value Income Producing Property

The Discounted Cash Flow Method is a method to value a project by taking all future projected cash flows of the project and discounting them back to time zero (date of purchase) using a predetermined discount rate (the discount rate when used…
sizing a mortgage loan amount
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How to Use Debt Yield to Calculate Loan Amount

In our glossary of commercial real estate terms, we recently answered the question: what is debt yield? As a follow up to that entry, I thought I’d expand on the concept of debt yield by showing you how lenders use debt yield to come up with…
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The A.CRE Method for Doing Cap Rate Math in Your Head

In this post, I'd like to share a method, that with a little practice, will enable you to quickly do cap rate math in your head; whether it’s quickly figuring out what the sale or purchase price would be of a property based on the NOI and…
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Construction Draw Schedule: Accounting For True LTC

When lenders provide debt for a development project, they lend based on a Loan-to-Cost ratio (LTC), which is simply the percent of the total budget the lender will agree to lend to the borrower. So, if a project costs $10MM, and a lender loans…
a shopping center with robust sales and low occupancy cost
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Tenant Sales and Occupancy Cost in Retail Underwriting

When underwriting a retail investment, rollover risk is an incredibly important consideration. You, as a prospective debt or equity investor in the property, need to understand how secure the cash flows you're buying are; or in other words,…
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Calculate Residual Land Value in Excel

Here's the scenario. You're a real estate developer. You spot a prime parcel of land that would be perfect for your real estate project. So you approach the owner of the land about selling and she says, "Okay, bring me an offer." How much do…
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After Tax Analysis in Real Estate (Now Included in Ai1)

When modeling real estate investments, industry practice is generally to stop at before tax cash flow. And this makes sense in most instances. No two owners of real estate have the exact same tax situation and no two properties necessarily…